N-Butylpyrrolidinone as a dipolar aprotic solvent for organic synthesis

Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C6GC00932H, Paper
James Sherwood, Helen L. Parker, Kristof Moonen, Thomas J. Farmer, Andrew J. Hunt
N-Butylpyrrolidinone (NBP) has been demonstrated as a suitable safer replacement solvent for N-Methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) in selected organic syntheses.

N-Butylpyrrolidinone as a dipolar aprotic solvent for organic synthesis

*Corresponding authors
aGreen Chemistry Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry, University of York, UK
E-mail: andrew.hunt@york.ac.uk
bEastman Chemical Company, Pantserschipstraat 207 – B-9000, Gent, Belgium
Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC00932H

Dipolar aprotic solvents such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)) are under increasing pressure from environmental regulation. NMP is a known reproductive toxin and has been placed on the EU “Substances of Very High Concern” list. Accordingly there is an urgent need for non-toxic alternatives to the dipolar aprotic solvents. N-Butylpyrrolidinone, although structurally similar to NMP, is not mutagenic or reprotoxic, yet retains many of the characteristics of a dipolar aprotic solvent. This work introduces N-butylpyrrolidinone as a new solvent for cross-coupling reactions and other syntheses typically requiring a conventional dipolar aprotic solvent.



////N-Butylpyrrolidinone, dipolar aprotic solvent , organic synthesis

Organocatalytic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of ketones and azides with water as a solvent


Green Chem., 2013, 15,2384-2388
DOI: 10.1039/C3GC41126E, Communication
Corresponding authors
Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore
E-mail: chmwangj@nus.edu.sg ;
Fax: (+)65-6516-1691
HuBei Collaborative Innovation Center of Non-power Nuclear Technology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province, China

Received 12 Jun 2013, Accepted 19 Jul 2013
First published online 22 Jul 2013

We reported an enamine catalyzed strategy to fully promote a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to access a vast pool of substituted 1,2,3-triazoles in water.

Porous Organic Polymer Captures CO2






A moisture-stable porous organic polymer containing carboxy and triazole groups reversibly and selectively captures carbon dioxide

Read more

Large-ring lactones from plant oils


Timo Witta and   Stefan Mecking*a  
Chair of Chemical Materials Science, University of Konstanz, Department of Chemistry, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany 
E-mail: stefan.mecking@uni-konstanz.de ;
Fax: +49 7531 885152 ;
Tel: +49 7531 882593
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40905H
Received 15 May 2013, Accepted 11 Jul 2013
First published online 29 Jul 2013
A synthesis route for macrocyclic compounds such as lactones starting from common plant oils has been developed.
Large-ring lactones from plant oils

Large-ring lactones and lactams were prepared utilising the full fatty acid chain of common plant oils as a source of the macrocycle. Ring closure via acyloin condensation does not require large volumes of solvents for dilution. Nonadecalactone (NDL) and tricosalactone (TCL) can be converted to novel polyesters by ring opening.

Watermelon Juice Prevents Aching Muscles Food Chemistry: The amino acid L-citrulline found in the fruit could help athletes avoid muscle soreness after a hard workout

Photo of watermelon juice smoothie in tall glass

The Next Sports Drink?
Watermelon drinks, like this smoothie, could help cut down on muscle soreness after intense exercise.
Credit: Shutterstock
Before taking a long bike ride on a hot summer day, have some watermelon: The juicy fruit may ward off muscle pains. Researchers report that people who drank watermelon juice before exercising felt less sore the next day than those who drank a pink placebo beverage (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/jf400964r). They also found that cells absorb the presumed active ingredient, L-citrulline, more readily from unpasteurized watermelon juice than from plain water spiked with the compound, suggesting the natural source is the optimal delivery

Greening hydrogenation catalysts

Iron nanoparticles

Researchers in Canada and Japan have worked together to develop a novel iron catalyst, which they suggest might make hydrogenation reactions more environment friendly. Hydrogenation reactions are commonly catalyzed using palladium or platinum compounds, but these metals are rare and expensive posing significant economic and environmental problems in obtaining adequate supplies. Iron would make a good substitute as it is abundantly available. But, iron oxidizes. Writing in the journal Green Chemistry, the team from RIKEN and McGill University, have embedded iron-based catalyst nanoparticles in a polymer matrix to protect them from oxygen and water and so preclude their catalyst from rusting. “Our aim is to develop iron-based catalysts not only for hydrogenation but also a variety of organic transformations that can be used in future industrial applications,” explains RIKEN researcher Yoichi Yamada.

New iron catalyst promises green future for hydrogenation


  • Reuben Hudson, Go Hamasaka, Takao Osako, Yochi M. A. Yamada, Chao-Jun Li, Yasuhiro Uozumi, and Audrey Moores. Highly Efficient Iron(0) Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Hydrogenation in Water in Flow, Green Chemistry. doi:10.1039/C3GC40789F



Precious metal catalysts replaced with polymer-supported iron –Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Graphical abstract: Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Corresponding authors
Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Canada
Division of Complex Catalysis, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan

RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirowasa, Wako, Japan
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40789F
Received 26 Apr 2013, Accepted 13 Jun 2013
First published online 27 Jun 2013

Highly efficient catalytic hydrogenations are achieved by using amphiphilic polymer-stabilized Fe(0) nanoparticle (Fe NP) catalysts in ethanol or water in a flow reactor.
Alkenes, alkynes, aromatic imines and aldehydes were hydrogenated nearly quantitatively in most cases.
Aliphatic amines and aldehydes, ketone, ester, arene, nitro, and aryl halide functionalities are not affected, which provides an interesting chemoselectivity.
The Fe NPs used in this system are stabilized and protected by an amphiphilic polymer resin, providing a unique system that combines long-term stability and high activity. The NPs were characterized by TEM of microtomed resin, which established that iron remains in the zero-valent form despite exposure to water and oxygen.
The amphiphilic resin-supported Fe(0) nanoparticles in water and in flow provide a novel, robust, cheap and environmentally benign catalyst system for chemoselective hydrogenations.


Top ten Superfoods for Weight Reduction

Weight loss

Superfoods are identified for their substantial antioxidant material which is advantageous for health. Hence, demolish totally free radicals and reduce the chance of particular conditions.

Additionally, they are minimal in energy but substantial in nutrition and fiber. Hence, they promote bodyweight loss as they preserve you total without having getting to take in surplus energy.

These nutrient-dense nevertheless minimal-calorie foodstuff supply ample energy to your entire body. Furthermore, the antioxidants aid enhance your metabolism, take away toxic compounds from the entire body, and stimulate the human body to burn up calories and unwanted fat.

So, if you are striving to get a slimmer physique naturally without having compromising on wellness, right here are 10 superfoods that are best for this job.




Research has proven that taking in 50 percent a grapefruit or drinking a serving of grapefruit juice just before meals, a few occasions in a day decreases hunger and encourages fat reduction.

It is considered that the chemical properties of this fruit help in decreasing insulin stages, which in turn encourages bodyweight decline due to the fact it aids in the regulation of excess fat metabolic process.

In addition, getting a dietary powerhouse of vitamin C, this superfoodstrengthens the immune method. Grapefruits, specifically white grapefruits, are also abundant in selenium which performs an critical part in the fat burning capacity and fights in opposition to totally free radical injury. In addition, it aids in hair development.


Blueberries are deemed as the ideal berries for fat reduction because they are substantial in antioxidants. In addition, the catechins found in this fruit affect specific genes that control the process of body fat burning and storage, specially in abdominal fat cells.

Consequently, if you are bothered about that protruding tummy, make positive you incorporate this tasty superfood in your diet program. Blueberries are also known for their cardio-protecting and cognitive benefits.

Additionally, the phytonutrients referred to as proanthocyanidins present in blueberries have anti-growing older homes. Apart from blueberries, you can also have other berries like blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and many others. to aid weight decline.


Lower-body fat simple yogurt serves as an excellent superfood to support you lose lbs .. Like other dairy items, it contains protein, calcium, iron, and other nutrients. One more reward of protein is that it helps make you feel fuller for lengthier and therefore, assists minimize food cravings and senseless eating.

In addition to, Greek yogurt is made up of far more protein than simple, lower-fat yogurt. Moreover, it is a female&rsquos ideal friend simply because a serving of Greek yogurt offers practically one particular-fourth of a girl&rsquos everyday calcium demands.

Hence, make positive you integrate this superfood in your typical diet regime. In addition, you can appreciate delicious yogurt smoothies and use it as a substitute for mayonnaise or bitter product.


Oats are extremely absorbent and are prosperous in fiber. Hence, they produce a emotion of fullness, thus killing your hunger pangs. It generates a gummy layer in the intestines, which reduces the charge of carbohydrate absorption and stabilizes blood sugar ranges.

In addition, oatmeal encourages digestion, lowers cholesterol (specially poor cholesterol), minimizes hypertension possibilities, and provides a good deal of strength.

So, you can start your day with a bowl of healthful oatmeal, if possible combined with fruits and nuts. In addition, you can create a savory recipe utilizing oatmeal, flaky sea salt, olive oil, freshly floor black pepper, and aged sharp cheddar cheese.

Olive Oil

Your weight-decline diet plan is very likely to be incomplete if you do not include olive oil in it. Olive oil is loaded with anti-oxidants and oleic acid (a monosaturated fat) which is deemed healthier.

It raises your emotion of satiety soon after you have a food. Furthermore, it lowers cholesterol ranges and that’s why, decreases the danger of heart illness.

Thus, you can extra-virgin olive oil in your salad dressings and bread dips. Apart from, you can sauté healthier veggies in this oil. Even though olive oil is healthier and suppresses hunger, you nevertheless require to have it in moderation.


Owing to its lower calorific worth and higher fiber material, tomato is regarded as as organic bodyweight reduction food. It is packed with antioxidant. To derive optimum advantage, it is recommended to consumetomatoes with their seeds and peels because they contain fiber.

Because of the fiber, tomatoes help suppress overeating. Moreover, it is believed that tomatoes tend to change the stages of hormones that control urge for food. In addition, they are rich in lycopene, an antioxidant that plays a critical role in decreasing the threat of most cancers.

Cayenne Pepper

Cayenne pepper and other hot peppers like Jalapeno, Serrano, Tabasco, Habanero chili, Thai pepper, and so on are very beneficial for weight decline.

Cayenne pepper, in specific, aids in dropping extra excess weight by making warmth in the physique boosting the calorie burning exercise. It has an lively ingredient known as capsaicin that raises your metabolism, curbs urge for food, and aids burn excess fat.

Moreover, it clears congestions, strengthens the immunity, regulates blood sugar stages, prevents ulcers, shields the coronary heart, and functions as aall-natural blood thinner. So, contemplate adding spicy cayenne pepper powder in your soups, stews, and favorite recipes.

In addition, you can have cayenne pepper tea well prepared by incorporating a teaspoon of cayenne pepper, two tablespoons of lemon juice, two tablespoons of maple syrup, and some ginger.

Apart from decreasing fat, it detoxifies the physique, soothes ulcers, andfights off colds. If you cannot have spicy food then you may possibly just take cayenne powder capsules, twice daily.

Pine Nuts

Pine nuts are packed with protein and monosaturated fat that get rid of triglycerides and defend in opposition to coronary heart condition. In addition, the fatty acids existing in these tiny however delicious nuts suppress your urge for food and aid you feel fuller.

This healthful food also consists of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin E, beta carotene, iron, magnesium, and zinc.

Apart from advertising satiety and cardiovascular well being, pine nuts assist in digestion, reduce gastrointestinal troubles, and manage autoimmune andinflammatory diseases.


Broccoli and other cruciferous greens this kind of as cabbage, kale, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, and so on. decrease your chance of weight problems simply because they are loaded with folate. In addition, higher folate amounts also help your get rid of more excess weight for the duration of dieting.

It is a B vitamin that operates with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to control insulin levels and metabolize proteins. Furthermore, folic acid boosts thebody&rsquos metabolic rate rate, slows down the body fat accumulation approach by breaking down fats into fatty acids and glycerol to provide vitality.

Additionally, being abundant in vitamin C, calcium, beta carotene, fiber, and so on, broccoli is excellent for your total health and properly becoming as it lowers the threat of developing quite a few diseases like cancers, coronary heart disease, cataract, higher blood strain, and so on.


Quinoa is an superb supply of nutritional fiber, protein, and complicated carbohydrates. In truth, the amount of protein found in quinoa is equivalent to the quantity of protein in milk which is deemed as one of the ideal resources of protein.

So, quinoa aids to keep total for a more time time. Getting a total protein foods, it is made up of adequate proportions of all the amino acids necessary by the human body for standard biological working.

Furthermore, this grain meals is rich in healthier fat, fiber, iron, and calcium but low in calories. Furthermore, it includes trace minerals like manganese and copper that decrease bone decline.

It is equivalent to rice in conditions of size and texture. You can integrate this superfood in a range of sweet and savory recipes. In addition, you can cook and then mix quinoa seeds and use the resultant paste as a thickening agent.

Getting minimal in glycemic index, quinoa is useful for diabetics as well. Plus, individuals who want to just take a gluten-totally free diet regime, also, can choose for quinoa as it does not include gluten.