Steam distillation of essential oils – Carvone from caraway

Steam distillation of essential oils – Carvone from caraway

J. Chem. Educ., 1976, 53 (2), p 105
DOI: 10.1021/ed053p105
Publication Date: February 1976

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed053p105

Carvone is a secondary metabolite.  That means it is a naturally-occurring compound that is not directly connected to the very basic functions of a cell, such as self-replication or the production of energy.  The role of secondary metabolites in nature is often difficult to determine.  However, these compounds often play roles in self-defense, acting as deterrents against competitor species in a sort of small-scale chemical warfare scenario.  They are also frequently used in communications; this role has been studied most extensively among insects, which use lots of compounds to send information to each other.

References:
1. Steam distillation of essential oils – Carvone from caraway. David L. Garin. J. Chem. Educ., 1976, 53 (2), p 105. DOI: 10.1021/ed053p105.
2. Cinnamaldehyde by Steam Distillation of Cinnamon. Douglass F. Taber and Andrew J. Weiss. J. Chem. Educ., 1998, 75 (5), p 633. DOI: 10.1021/ed075p633.
3. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis. Sunita Dhingra and Chetna Angrish. J. Chem. Educ., 2011, 88 (5), p 649. DOI: 10.1021/ed1004454.
4. An Improved Preparation of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Reagent. Ben Ruekberg and Eric Rossoni. J. Chem. Educ., 2005, 82 (9), p 1310. DOI: 10.1021/ed082p1310.2.

A Green, Diels-Alder Reaction

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed086p488

Greener Solutions for the Organic Chemistry Teaching Lab: Exploring the Advantages of Alternative Reaction Media

Department of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403
Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032
Department of Chemistry, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN 55057
J. Chem. Educ., 2009, 86 (4), p 488
DOI: 10.1021/ed086p488
Publication Date (Web): April 1, 2009

Green, Diels-Alder Reaction Procedure.pdf

A major approach for implementing green chemistry is the discovery and development of synthetic strategies that reduce the quantity of solvent needed, eliminate it altogether, or rely on new reaction media. An increasing number of examples have demonstrated that greener reaction solvents or media can enhance performance as well as reduce hazard. Here we describe four experiments designed for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that illustrate both enhanced performance and a greener approach: (i) a solventless aldol condensation that involves the reaction of two solid reagents, (ii) a solvent-free, room temperature Diels–Alder reaction followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic acyl substitution, (iii) a Diels–Alder reaction in water, and (iv) a Diels–Alder reaction in polyethylene glycol (PEG) that may be conducted using microwave heating. The alternative solvents or reaction media used in these experiments not only reduce the use of hazardous and volatile organic solvents but also enhance the transformations by increasing the rate of reaction or facilitating recovery of the product. These thoroughly tested laboratory experiments are convenient, inexpensive, and rapid, thereby providing an opportunity to introduce green chemistry into educational settings easily.

References:
Greener Solutions for the Organic Chemistry Teaching Lab: Exploring the Advantages of Alternative Reaction Media. Lallie C. McKenzie , Lauren M. Huffman and James E. Hutchison , Courtney E. Rogers and Thomas E. Goodwin , Gary O. Spessard.

J. Chem. Educ., 2009, 86 (4), p 490-491. DOI: 10.1021/ed086p488.

This laboratory is based on work by Breslow and others, including Breslow, R.; Zhu, Z. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 9923 and references therein, Breslow, R.; Groves, K.; Mayer, M. U. Pure and Applied Chemistry 1998, 70, 1933, Meyers, K. E.; Kumar, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 12025, and Breslow, R.; Maitra, U.; Rideout, D. Tetrahedron Lett. 1983, 24, 1901.

A WEBINAR WITH ALEX STONE “Alternatives Assessment and Risk Reduction Guidance”

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