Asymmetric synthesis of (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol – closing a gap in C–C bond formation

Graphical abstract: Asymmetric synthesis of (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol – closing a gap in C–C bond formation

image file: c6gc01803c-f3.tif
Fig. 3 Stereoselectivities of the new ApPDC-variants for the synthesis of (S)-PAC. The different variants were tested as wet cells, crude cell extracts, and purified enzymes. Reaction conditions: wet cells – 20 mM benzaldehyde; 200 mM pyruvate; 50 mM KPi-buffer (pH 6.5), 2.5 mM MgSO4; 0.1 mM ThDP; 20 °C; 800 rpm, 800 μL reaction volume in 1.5 mL closed glass vials, whole cell catalyst concentration of 50 mg mL−1. Crude cell extract – 20 mM benzaldehyde; 200 mM pyruvate; 50 mM KPi-buffer (pH 6.5), 2.5 mM MgSO4; 0.1 mM ThDP; 20 °C; 800 rpm, 500 μL reaction volume in a 96-well sheet; see ESI chapter 2.1.4–2.1.5 for the catalyst concentration. Purified enzyme – 40 mM benzaldehyde; 200 mM pyruvate; 50 mM KPi-buffer with three different pH values, 2.5 mM MgSO4; 0.1 mM ThDP; 22 °C; 800 rpm, 800 μL reaction volume in 1.5 mL closed glass vials; protein concentration of 1 mg mL−1.

Asymmetric synthesis of (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol – closing a gap in C–C bond formation

*Corresponding authors
aInstitute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Str. 1, 52425 Jülich, Germany
bHERBRAND PharmaChemicals GmbH, Brambachstr. 31, 77723 Gegenbach, Germany
cAlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology – School of Biotechnology, Roslagstull 21, Stockholm, Sweden
dInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
eMerz Pharma GmbH & Co. KGaA, Am Pharmapark, D-06861 Dessau-Rosslau, Germany
fInstitute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
gTRUMPF GmbH+Co.KG, Ditzingen Johann-Maus-Straße 2, 71254 Ditzingen, Germany
hEnzymicals AG, Walther-Rathenau-Str 49a, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
Green Chem., 2017,19, 380-384

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC01803C

(S)-Phenylacetylcarbinol [(S)-PAC] and its derivatives are valuable intermediates for the synthesis of various active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but their selective synthesis is challenging. As no highly selective enzymes or chemical catalysts were available, we used semi-rational enzyme engineering to tailor a potent biocatalyst to be >97% stereoselective for the synthesis of (S)-PAC. By optimizing the reaction and process used, industrially relevant product concentrations of >48 g L−1 (up to 320 mM) were achieved. In addition, the best enzyme variant gave access to a broad range of ring-substituted (S)-PAC derivatives with high stereoselectivity, especially for meta-substituted products.

image file: c6gc01803c-f2.tif
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the active site of ApPDC. The legends explain the effect of different amino acid residues on the preferred orientation of the ThDP-bound donor substrate acetaldehyde, derived from pyruvate after decarboxylation (green rectangle) and the aromatic acceptor aldehyde (blue hexagon). The relative orientation of both substrates to each other defines the stereoselectivity of the product. (The figures refer to the stereoselectivities achieved with purified enzyme.)

///////////////Asymmetric synthesis, (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol,  C–C bond formation!divAbstract

A deeper shade of green: inspiring sustainable drug manufacturing

Graphical abstract: A deeper shade of green: inspiring sustainable drug manufacturing

Green and sustainable drug manufacturing go hand in hand with forward-looking visions seeking to balance the long-term sustainability of business, society, and the environment. However, a lack of harmonization among available metrics has inhibited opportunities for green chemistry in industry. Moreover, inconsistent starting points for analysis and neglected complexities for diverse manufacturing processes have made developing objective goals a challenge. Herein we put forward a practical strategy to overcome these barriers using data from in-depth analysis of 46 drug manufacturing processes from nine large pharmaceutical firms, and propose the Green Aspiration Level as metric of choice to enable the critically needed consistency in smart green manufacturing goals. In addition, we quantify the importance of green chemistry in the often overlooked, yet enormously impactful, outsourced portion of the supply chain, and introduce the Green Scorecard as a value added sustainability communication tool.!divAbstract

The Green Aspiration Level (GAL) has been constructed on four pillars to ensure consistent application, namely (1) clearly defined synthesis starting points,1 (2) unambiguous complete E factor (cEF)2,3 or Process Mass Intensity (PMI) waste metrics, (3) historical averages of industrial drug manufacturing waste, and (4) complexity of the drug’s ideal manufacturing process (Supplementary Figure 6). cEF or PMI can be used interchangeably in GAL-based analysis enabling organizations using either to calculate their green performance scores. cEF and PMI differ by just one unit (Supplementary Equation 6) and share the same commercial waste goal for an average manufacturing step4 – the transformation-GAL or tGAL – that results in negligible numerical differences from the inclusion of one or the other. The pharmaceutical industry has generally adopted PMI. However, our publication utilizes cEF values due to literature prevalence and potentially broader appeal of E factors.5 It is important to note that all reaction and workup materials are included in the analysis, but excluded are reactor cleaning6 and solvent recycling.7 Standardized process starting points are a critical component of the GAL methodology. A starting material for some may be an intermediate for others. Until recently, the scientific community lacked an unambiguous definition of process starting points in the assessment of process greenness. This has been a bothersome source of inconsistency. Failure to define an appropriate starting material can lead to exclusion of significant amounts of intrinsic raw material waste created during earlier stages of manufacture. We therefore utilize these updated definitions of process analysis starting points to ensuring higher quality of data:8

1) The material is commercially available from a major reputable chemical laboratory catalog company, and its price is listed in the (online) catalog. Materials requiring bulk or custom quotes do not qualify as process starting material. AND 2) The laboratory catalog cost of the material at its largest offered quantity does not exceed US $100/mol. Therefore, published literature must be researched if the material does not qualify as process starting material in order to determine its correct intrinsic cEF. However, we realized that determination of literature cEF values is tedious and involves making assumptions since literature procedures are often incomplete compared to internal or external manufacturing batch records. Thus, standardizing Literature cEF quickly became a desirable goal. In order to facilitate literature analysis we introduced Supplementary Equation 7 that just requires determination of literature step count from ≤$100/mol starting materials without having to retrieve literature waste information.9 The literature step multiplier of 37 kg/kg represents the average literature step cEF across the analyzed projects (Supplementary Table 1), so it equals their average literature cEF (76 kg/kg) divided by average literature step count (2.1). The process cEF and Relative Process Greenness (RPG) derived from the simplified calculated cEF literature values are shown next to their progenitors in Supplementary Table 3. We observe that average calculated and manually determined cEF and RPG values are comparable and within 10% of their means across the three development phases. Thus, we consider the simplified method sound and an importtant element to achieving consistency in green process analysis.

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A deeper shade of green: inspiring sustainable drug manufacturing

 *Corresponding authors
aChemical Development, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, USA
bPharmaceutical Sciences – Worldwide Research & Development, Pfizer, Groton, USA
cPfizer, Sandwich, UK
dChemical & Analytical Development, Novartis Pharma, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
eAPI Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, UK
fSmall Molecule Process Chemistry, Genentech, a Member of the Roche Group, South San Francisco, USA
gSmall Molecule Design and Development, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, USA
hChemical and Synthetic Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New Brunswick, USA
iProcess Chemistry, Merck, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
jProcess Development, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, USA
kMolecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
lDelft University of Technology, 2628 BL Delft, Netherlands
Green Chem., 2017,19, 281-285

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02901A

Frank Roschangar, PhD MBA

Frank Roschangar, PhD MBA

Pharmaceutical process research director, passionate about accelerating drug development and driving green chemistry.

Boehringer Ingelheim
Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany

Research experience

  • Feb 2002–Sep 2015
    Boehringer Ingelheim
    Germany · Nieder-Ingelheim
  • Aug 1996–Feb 1998
    The Scripps Research Institute · Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology · Prof. K.C. Nicolaou
    United States · La Jolla
  • Aug 1992–Aug 1996
    PhD Candidate
    Rice University · Department of Chemistry
    United States · Houston
Supplementary References
1. The $100 per mol laboratory catalog pricing requirement described in Supplementary Discussion 1 does not apply to reagents, catalysts, ligands, and solvents, since they are produced for widespread application and are not specific to the process being evaluated.
2. Since the original E factor has been applied inconsistently, the cEF metric was introduced for the purpose of GAL analysis. cEF accounts for all process reaction and process workup materials, including raw materials, intermediates, reagents, process aids, solvents, and water.
3. All E factors reported herein represent the cEF or sEF contributions of the overall manufacturing process or the sub-process (e.g. external cEF, literature cEF) to produce 1 kg of drug substance.
4. We define a step as a chemical operation involving one or more chemical transformations that form and/or break covalent or ionic bonds and lead to a stable and isolable intermediate, but not necessarily include its isolation. Examples: • Simultaneous removal of two or more protection groups involves multiple transformations, yet it is carried out in one chemical operation  counted as one step • Sequential transformations via a stable and isolable intermediate that are carried out in two operations but without intermediate workup  counted as two steps • Formation of covalent bonds or salts that occur during workup  not counted as an extra step • Separate operation of salt formation from an isolated intermediate  counted as one step • Isolation of a product, following work-up, as a solution that can be stored  counted as one step.
5. A SciFinder search for the terms ‘Process Mass Intensity’, and ‘E factor’ and ‘Environmental impact factor’ on Nov. 14, 2016 revealed that the PMI concept was present in 12, 8, 9, and 12 publications for the years 2013-2016, respectively, while the E factor concept was mentioned 39, 45, 57, and 46 times (76-86%), respectively.
6. The GAL considers only direct process materials, i.e. materials used in the chemical steps and their workups. It does not include solvents and aqueous detergents required for reactor and equipment cleaning between batches or steps, nor the frequency and duration of the equipment and facility specific cleaning operations. These parameters are considered for comprehensive environmental impact in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis.
7. In US pharmaceutical manufacturing, recycling accounts for 25% of waste handling, while energy recovery burning and treatment constitute 38% and 35%, based on 2012 data from ‘The Right-To-Know Network’ (RTKNET.ORG), Toxic Releases (TRI) Database:
8. The $100 per mol commodity pricing criterion was established in ref. 15 of the main article based on the author’s professional experience. The authors of this manuscript consider this figure appropriate and helpful for providing a consistent analysis.
9. If a detailed procedure is available for a particular literature step, its calculated waste can be used in place of the 37 kg/kg default value.
10. J. Li and M. D. Eastgate, Current Complexity: a Tool for Assessing the Complexity of Organic Molecules. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015,13, 7164–7176.
11. D. P. Kjell, I. A. Watson, C. N. Wolfe and J. T. Spitler, Complexity-Based Metric for Process Mass Intensity in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2013, 17, 169– 174.
12. R. P. Sheridan, et al., Modeling a Crowdsourcing Definition of Molecular Complexity. J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2014, 54, 1604–1616.
13. M. F. Faul, et al., Part 2: Designation and Justification of API Starting Materials: Current Practices across Member Companies of the IQ Consortium. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2014, 18, 594–600.
14. Besides offering simplicity, the GAL’s process complexity model was selected vs. the alternative structural complexity measures due to its inherent ideality-derived consideration for available synthetic methodology.
15. See main article ref. 16: it defines Construction Reactions (CR) as chemical transformations that form skeletal C-C or C-heteroatom bonds. Strategic Redox Reactions (SRR) are construction reactions that directly establish the correct functionality found in the final product, and include asymmetric reductions or oxidations. All other types of non-strategic reactions are considered as Concession Steps (CS), and include functional group interconversions, non-strategic redox reactions, and protecting group manipulations.
16. M. E. Kopach, et al., Process Development and Pilot-Plant Synthesis of (2-Chlorophenyl)[2-(phenylsulfonyl)pyridin-3- yl]methanone. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2010, 14, 1229–1238.
17. M. E. Kopach, M. M. Murray, T. M. Braden, M. E. Kobierski, O. L. Williams, Improved Synthesis of 1-(Azidomethyl)-3,5-bis- (trifluoromethyl)benzene: Development of Batch and Microflow Azide Processes. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2009, 13, 152–160. 18. RCI (Process B) = 1 − ( ) = 0.25. RCI (Process C) = 1 − ( ) = 0.38

//////////green chemistry, drugs

Production of High-Quality Diesel from Biomass Waste Products

The use of biodiesel has been promoted for the past decade as a substitute for fossil-based diesel fuel. However, it has become evident that its production competes with food production by engrossing cropland. To overcome this Corma has developed a process that uses 2-methylfuran which currently is isolated (280 × 103 tonnes per year) from nonedible biomass ( Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 2375−2378). The first step is the trimerization of 2-methylfuran which takes place in water mediated by sulfuric acid in 94% yield. The trimer is then subjected to hydrodeoxygenation using a mixture of Pt/C and Pt/TiO2 and 5 MPa of hydrogen in 97% yield. Of particular note was the use of no organic solvent in the process. This route opens new routes for the production of high-quality diesel from waste biomass.
original image

High-quality liquid fuels are obtained from non-edible carbohydrates by energy-efficient processes. 2-Methylfuran, produced by hydrogenation of furfural, is converted into 6-alkyl undecanes in a catalytic solvent-free process (see scheme with 6-butylundecane). A diesel fuel is produced with an excellent motor cetane number (71) and pour point (−90 °C) and with global process conversions and selectivities close to 90 %.

Production of High-Quality Diesel from Biomass Waste Products

AuthorsProf. Dr. Avelino Corma, ET AL

  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201007508

str1 str2


5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.500 g, 3.95 mmol) was dissolved in 2-methylfuran (2.00 g, 24.4 mmol) at room temperature, Amberlyst-15 (50 mg) was added as catalyst, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 24 h at room temperature. Then, the catalyst was filtered out and washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate obtained was concentrated under vacuum and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (95 : 5 hexane : ethyl acetate changing to 70 : 30) and 5-[bis(5-methyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-2- furanmethanol was obtained (0.921 g, 3.39 mmol, 86% yield).
I.R. (neat) max: 3407, 3128, 2948, 2917, 1560, 1442, 1207, 1016, 958, 788 cm–1.-
1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3)  = 6.22 (d, 1H, J=3 Hz), 6.05 (d, 1H, J=3 Hz), 5.97 (d, 2H, J=3 Hz), 5.89 – 5.90 (m, 2H), 5.40 (s, 1H), 4.56 (s, 2H), 2.26 (s, 6H), 1.75 (s, 1H).-
13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3)  = 153.3, 152.8, 151.6, 150.2, 108.7, 108.0, 106.2, 39.2, 13.6.-
HRMS m/z calculated for C16H16O4: 272.1049. Found: 295. 0970 [M+Na]+ .-
Elemental analysis: C16H16O4 required: C, 70.57; H, 5.92; found: C, 70.57; H, 6.09 %.
Synthesis of trissylvylmethane (2,2′,2”-methylidenetris[5-methylfuran])[20] from 2- methylfuran (Sylvan) and 5-methylfurfural employing a 5 : 1 molar ratio of 2- methylfuran and 5-methylfurfural in presence of para-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst.
 In a 1-L three-neck round-bottom flask, equipped with a reflux condenser and a mechanical stirrer, 2-methylfuran (Sylvan, 600 g, 7.25 mol) and para-toluenesulfonic acid (13.8 g, 80.1 mmol) were placed. Under stirring 5-methylfurfural (160 g, 1.45 mol) was added at a rate of 120 mL/h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at 50 ºC until a total reaction time of 6 h. The aqueous phase was separated and discarded. The organic phase was treated with NaHCO3 and with MgSO4 and the excess 2-methylfuran was distilled off with a rotary evaporator. Distillation provided the desired product 2,2′,2”-methylidenetris[5-methylfuran] as a colorless liquid in 97% purity (120 ºC, 2 HPa; 365 g, 1.35 mol, 93% yield). A distillation residue of 49.1 g was obtained. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 5.99 (d, J=3.1, 3H), 5.93 – 5.89 (m, 3H), 5.39 (s, 1H), 2.27 (d, J=0.8, 9H).- 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 151.4, 150.7, 107.8, 106.2, 39.1, 13.6.

Efficient atom and step economic (EASE) synthesis of the “smart drug” Modafinil

Efficient atom and step economic (EASE) synthesis of the “smart drug” Modafinil

Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02623K, Communication
Shivam Maurya, Dhiraj Yadav, Kemant Pratap, Atul Kumar
We developed a post-sulfoxidation protocol for the synthesis of Modafinil that exhibits improved sustainability credentials, utilizing the recyclable heterogeneous catalyst Nafion-H.

Efficient atom and step economic (EASE) synthesis of the “smart drug” Modafinil

Shivam Maurya,ab   Dhiraj Yadav,a   Kemant Pratapab and  Atul Kumar*ab  
 *Corresponding authors
aMedicinal & Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, P.O. Box 173, Lucknow 226031, India
bAcademy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110001, India
Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02623K

Atul Kumar

Atul Kumar

Professor, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)/ Senior Principal Scientist at CSIR-CDRI

Central Drug Research Institute

Modafinil (2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide, MOD) is a key psychostimulant drug used for the treatment of narcolepsy and other sleep disorders that has a very low addiction liability. Recently, MOD has been clinically investigated for the treatment of cocaine addiction and used by astronauts in long-term space missions. We have developed a synthetic strategy for “smart drug” Modafinil. An efficient atom and step economic (EASE) synthesis has been carried out by the direct reaction of benzhydrol and 2-mercaptoacetamide using the recyclable heterogeneous catalyst Nafion-H along with post-sulfoxidation. This protocol exhibits improved sustainability credentials. We have also developed a superior pre-sulfoxidation approach for the synthesis of Modafinil.

Modafinil Physical State – White solid; M.p. 158-159ºC,
IR (KBr): 3383, 3314, 3256, 1690, 1 1616, 1494, 1376, 1027, 702 cm-1;
H NMR (CDCl3) δ(ppm): 3.14(d, J=14.3 Hz, 1H); 3.48(d, J=14.3 Hz, 1H); 5.24(s, 1H); 5.88(br s, 1H); 7.09(br s, 1H); 7.29-7.43(m, 7H); 7.43-7.51(m, 3H);
13C NMR (CDCl3) δ(ppm): 52.00, 71.61, 128.80, 128.98, 129.10, 129.58, 129.62, 134.30, 134.74, + 166.46; Molecular formula C15H15NO2S;
ESI-MS (m/z): 274.1 (M+H) .

Dr. Atul Kumar

Senior Principal Scientist

Solvent- and halide-free synthesis of pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas through facile C-H functionalization of pyridine N-oxides

Solvent- and halide-free synthesis of pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas through facile C-H functionalization of pyridine N-oxides

Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02556K, Paper

Valentin A. Rassadin, Dmitry P. Zimin, Gulnara Z. Raskil’dina, Alexander Yu. Ivanov, Vadim P. Boyarskiy, Semen S. Zlotskii, Vadim Yu. Kukushkin

A solvent- and halide-free atom-economical synthesis of practically useful pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas utilizes pyridine N-oxides and dialkylcyanamides.

Solvent- and halide-free synthesis of pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas through facile C–H functionalization of pyridine N-oxides

 *Corresponding authors

aInstitute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Nab. 7/9, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia

bUfa State Petroleum Technological University, Kosmonavtov 1, Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia

cResearch Park SPbSU, Center for Magnetic Resonance, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Nab. 7/9, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia

Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02556K

A novel solvent- and halide-free atom-economical synthesis of practically useful pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas utilizes easily accessible or commercially available pyridine N-oxides (PyO) and dialkylcyanamides. The observed C–H functionalization of PyO is suitable for the good-to-high yielding synthesis of a wide range of pyridine-2-yl substituted ureas featuring electron donating and electron withdrawing, sensitive, or even fugitive functional groups at any position of the pyridine ring (63–92%; 19 examples). In the cases of 3-substituted PyO, the C–H functionalization occurs regioselectively providing a route for facile generation of ureas bearing a 5-substituted pyridine-2-yl moiety.


1,1-Dimethyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)urea (4a)3 : From pyridine 1-oxide (1a) (95.0 mg, 1.00 mmol) and dimethylcyanamide (2a) (105 mg, 1.50 mmol), compound 4a (147 mg, 89%) was obtained according to GP1 as a yellow oil, which was then crystalized in the freezer to give pale yellow solid, m.p. = 42.6–43.5 °C, lit.4 m.p. = 44–47 °C (EtOAc/hexane), Rf = 0.25 (EtOAc). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 3.00 (s, 6 H, NCH3), 6.88 (ddd, J = 7.3, 5.0, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.30 (br. s, 1 H), 7.60 (ddd, J = 8.5, 7.3, 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.02 (dt, J = 8.5, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.14 (ddd, J = 5.0, 1.9, 0.9 Hz, 1 H) ppm. 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 36.3 (2 С, CH3), 113.0 (CH), 118.1 (CH), 138.0 (CH), 147.3 (CH), 152.8 (C), 154.8 (C) ppm. NMR data are consistent with previously reported.3 HRMS (ESI), m/z: [M + H]+ calcd. for C8H12N3O+ : 166.0975; found: 166.0977.


A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02517J, Communication

Xihong Liu, Dongxu Yang, Kezhou Wang, Jinlong Zhang, Rui Wang

A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles has been reported under mild conditions.

A catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles: an easy access to five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines

Xihong Liu,a   Dongxu Yang,a   Kezhou Wang,a  Jinlong Zhanga and   Rui Wang*ab  

*Corresponding authors

aSchool of Life Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China

bState Key Laboratory of Chiroscience, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, P. R. China

Green Chem., 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02517J

We have reported herein a catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and 3-nitroindoles by which a series of five-ring-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines featuring an indoline scaffold were obtained as single diastereomers in moderate to high yields without any additives under mild conditions. Moreover, the current method provides a novel and convenient approach for the efficient incorporation of two biologically important scaffolds (tetrahydroisoquinoline and indoline).

ethyl 13b-nitro-8-tosyl-8,8a,13b,13c-tetrahydro-5H-indolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[5,1- a]isoquinoline-9(6H)-carboxylate

ethyl 13b-nitro-8-tosyl-8,8a,13b,13c-tetrahydro-5H-indolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrazolo[5,1- a]isoquinoline-9(6H)-carboxylate:

White solid, m.p. 153 – 154 oC; 94% yield; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.86 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.30 – 7.13 (m, 5H), 7.1 (s, 1H), 7.05 – 6.94 (m, 1H), 6.94 – 6.87 (m, 1H), 6.59 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 6.28 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (s, 1H), 4.37 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.80 – 2.58 (m, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 2.31 – 2.11 (m, 2H), 1.41 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H) ppm;

13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 152.1, 144.6, 142.6, 134.0, 132.1, 129.3, 129.0, 128.7, 128.3, 127.5, 127.3, 126.2, 122.8, 121.1, 115.5, 104.5, 84.9, 70.7, 62.8, 48.5, 29.1, 21. 6, 14.3 ppm;

HRMS (ESI): C27H26N4NaO6S [M + Na]+ calcd: 557.1465, found: 557.1476.


Simultaneous rapid reaction workup and catalyst recovery

Simultaneous rapid reaction workup and catalyst recovery

Green Chem., 2016, 18,5769-5772

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02448C, Communication

Zhichao Lu, Zofia Hetman, Gerald B. Hammond, Bo Xu

By combining reaction work-up and catalyst recovery into a simple filtration procedure we have developed a substantially faster technique for organic synthesis.

By combining reaction work-up and catalyst recovery into a simple filtration procedure we have developed a substantially faster technique for organic synthesis. Our protocol eliminates the time-consuming conventional liquid–liquid extraction and is capable of parallelization and automation. Additionally, it requires only minimal amounts of solvent.

Simultaneous rapid reaction workup and catalyst recovery

Zhichao Lu,a   Zofia Hetman,a   Gerald B. Hammond*a and  Bo Xu*b  

 *Corresponding authors

aDepartment of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, USA

bCollege of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Lu, Shanghai 201620, China


Green Chem., 2016,18, 5769-5772

DOI: 10.1039/C6GC02448C!divAbstract

. General procedure for a reaction Step 1. Reaction setup. The reaction is conducted in the usual way with the supported catalyst. Porelite® (typically 1 mL for every 0.1 gram of product) is added to the reaction mixture under stirring, Step 2. Reaction quench and rigid solvent extraction. If needed, the reaction is quenched with a suitable aqueous solution (e.g. NaHCO3 solution). • If the solvent used in the reaction is water-miscible (eg., DMF, methanol, etc.), a minimum amount of water immiscible solvent (e.g. 3 mL ether for every 1 g of product) is added to help organic material become entrenched in Porelite. • If the reaction is conducted in a water immiscible solvent (e.g. toluene, DCM), no extra solvent is needed in most cases. The excess amount of solvent is removed by rotavapor or by nitrogen/air purging (no need to remove the water from the mixture). The reaction mixture is filtered to remove aqueous-soluble components (starting materials, by-products, etc.) and washed with water (or HCl or Na2CO3 solution to remove basic or acidic byproducts. Vacuum is applied to dry the filtrate for 2 minutes to remove any remaining aqueous and volatile solvents. (For automatic flash chromatographic separation, an empty loading cartridge can be used, which can be directly attached to the commercial system. For manual chromatographic separation, a regular Büchner filter can be used). Step 3. Sample loading to chromatographic system. • The loading cartridge can be directly attached to the commercial flash chromatographic system (e.g., CombiFlash Rf series). • For manual chromatographic separation, the polymer powder is loaded directly onto a manual flash silica gel column (dry loading).

Because the polymer pad may contain some trapped air, it is recommended to start with the least polar solvent (e.g., hexane) during chromatographic separation to remove the trapped air.



Han, W.; Liu, C.; Jin, Z.-L. Organic Letters 2007, 9, 4005-4007