Atheroprotective Activity of Spirulina

Atheroprotective activity of Spirulina may be due to it having a protein with a similar structure to bilirubin

Spirulina platensis, a water blue-green alga and food supplement due to its high amount of proteins, polysaccharides, and vitamins, has been associated with potent biological effects.

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Atheroprotective Activity of Spirulina

In order for our body to ensure all organ functions it needs natural nutrients in the best and highest concentration. Spirulina’s “natural treasure chest” contains a unique and balanced combination of the highest levels of natural substances that are essential for good health. Spirulina has a very thin cell wall, which enables vital nutrients to be easily absorbed by the body.

Spirulina in comparison

Spirulina contains more than 4.000 vital substances and nutrients and it is also nutritionally superior compared to usual foods.

Spirulina contains:

  • 300 % more calcium than unskimmed milk
  • 2.300 % more iron than spinach
  • 3.900 % more beta-carotene than carrots
  • 375 % more protein than tofu

Further information:

Crystal Structure of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina Platensis.
Crystal structure of Spirulina platensis for Phycocyanin with PDB ID 1GH0 was revealed to contain 24 chains named from 1GH0A to 1GH0X. It was observed that the alternate chains consisted of same sequence however, the odd chains (1GH0A, 1GH0C, 1GH0E… 1GH0W) and even chains (1GH0B, 1GH0D, 1GH0F… 1GH0X) contained 162 and 172 amino acid residues respectively in a similar pattern. Sequence comparison revealed 100 BLAST hits and phylogenetic tree was traced for alternate chains. Similarity percentages of hits were calculated for 1GH0A chain was revealed to have 84 % hits of cyanobacterial sequences, 12 % hits of rhodophyta sequences, and 4% hits of eugliphida, cyanophora and artificial vector sequences respectively. Similarity percentages of hits were calculated for 1GH0B chain was revealed to have 73 % hits of cyanobacterial sequences, 20% hits of rhodophyta sequences, and 5% hits of cryptophyta
sequences, and 1% hits of eugliphida and 1% hits of cyanophora sequences respectively. Structure comparisons of these sequences examined by VAST showed residues of alternate entire chains from 1 to 162 and from 1 to 172 residues to contain 1323 structure neighbors. 1628 structure neighbors were found for the phycobilisome domain family which is the major accessory lightharvesting complexes of cyanobacteria and red algae.
Sequence and Structure Comparison Studies of Phycocyanin in Spirulina Platensis
Lakshmi P.T.V.1 *, Uma Maheswari S.1, Karthikeyan P.P.1, Annamalai A.2
1Phytomatics Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore- 46, Tamil Nadu, India,
Fax. 0422-2424387; E-mail:,
1Department of Bioinformatics, Aloysius Institute of Computer Sciences, St. Aloysius   College, Light House Hill,
Mangalore -3, Karnataka, India. E. mail:
2Plant Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Karunya University,  Coimbatore – 114.  Tamil   Nadu, India,  E. mail:
*Corresponding author: Dr. Lakshmi, P.T.V.,
Email  :

Porous Organic Polymer Captures CO2






A moisture-stable porous organic polymer containing carboxy and triazole groups reversibly and selectively captures carbon dioxide

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A flexible Pinner preparation of orthoesters: the model case of trimethylorthobenzoate



Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi dell’Universita Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Centre for Sustainable Technologies, calle Larga S. Marta, 2137-30123 Venezia, Italy 

Green Chem., 2013,15, 2252-2260

DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40774H
Received 24 Apr 2013, Accepted 10 Jun 2013

The Pinner preparation of orthoesters was revisited achieving remarkable improvements. Outstandingly an unprecedented synthesis of trimethylorthobenzoate starting from benzonitrile has been described.
In the absence of additional solvents,
a novel procedure was implemented for the synthesis oftrimethylorthoesters through the Pinner reaction. At 5 °C, the reaction of both aliphatic and aromatic nitriles (RCN; R = Et, Bu, Ph) with a moderate excess of MeOH and gaseous HCl gave the corresponding imidate hydrochlorides [RC([double bond, length as m-dash]NH)OR′·HCl]
in excellent yields (>90%). At 25–65 °C, the methanolysis of alkyl imidate salts provided trimethylortho-propionate and valerate, while only traces of trimethylorthobenzoate (TMOB) were observed. However, the aromatic hydrochloride could be readily converted into the hydrogenphosphate salt [PhC([double bond, length as m-dash]NH)OR′·H3PO4] which, in turn, underwent a selective (>80%) reaction with MeOH to produce TMOB in a 62% isolated yield. This allowed for an unprecedented Pinner-type synthesis of TMOB starting from benzonitrile, rather than from the highly toxic trichloromethylbenzene. Overall, remarkable improvements in safety and process intensification were achieved.

Large-ring lactones from plant oils


Timo Witta and   Stefan Mecking*a  
Chair of Chemical Materials Science, University of Konstanz, Department of Chemistry, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany 
E-mail: ;
Fax: +49 7531 885152 ;
Tel: +49 7531 882593
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40905H
Received 15 May 2013, Accepted 11 Jul 2013
First published online 29 Jul 2013
A synthesis route for macrocyclic compounds such as lactones starting from common plant oils has been developed.
Large-ring lactones from plant oils

Large-ring lactones and lactams were prepared utilising the full fatty acid chain of common plant oils as a source of the macrocycle. Ring closure via acyloin condensation does not require large volumes of solvents for dilution. Nonadecalactone (NDL) and tricosalactone (TCL) can be converted to novel polyesters by ring opening.

Watermelon Juice Prevents Aching Muscles Food Chemistry: The amino acid L-citrulline found in the fruit could help athletes avoid muscle soreness after a hard workout

Photo of watermelon juice smoothie in tall glass

The Next Sports Drink?
Watermelon drinks, like this smoothie, could help cut down on muscle soreness after intense exercise.
Credit: Shutterstock
Before taking a long bike ride on a hot summer day, have some watermelon: The juicy fruit may ward off muscle pains. Researchers report that people who drank watermelon juice before exercising felt less sore the next day than those who drank a pink placebo beverage (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/jf400964r). They also found that cells absorb the presumed active ingredient, L-citrulline, more readily from unpasteurized watermelon juice than from plain water spiked with the compound, suggesting the natural source is the optimal delivery

Greening hydrogenation catalysts

Iron nanoparticles

Researchers in Canada and Japan have worked together to develop a novel iron catalyst, which they suggest might make hydrogenation reactions more environment friendly. Hydrogenation reactions are commonly catalyzed using palladium or platinum compounds, but these metals are rare and expensive posing significant economic and environmental problems in obtaining adequate supplies. Iron would make a good substitute as it is abundantly available. But, iron oxidizes. Writing in the journal Green Chemistry, the team from RIKEN and McGill University, have embedded iron-based catalyst nanoparticles in a polymer matrix to protect them from oxygen and water and so preclude their catalyst from rusting. “Our aim is to develop iron-based catalysts not only for hydrogenation but also a variety of organic transformations that can be used in future industrial applications,” explains RIKEN researcher Yoichi Yamada.

New iron catalyst promises green future for hydrogenation

  • Reuben Hudson, Go Hamasaka, Takao Osako, Yochi M. A. Yamada, Chao-Jun Li, Yasuhiro Uozumi, and Audrey Moores. Highly Efficient Iron(0) Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Hydrogenation in Water in Flow, Green Chemistry. doi:10.1039/C3GC40789F



Precious metal catalysts replaced with polymer-supported iron –Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Graphical abstract: Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Highly efficient iron(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed hydrogenation in water in flow

Corresponding authors
Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Canada
Division of Complex Catalysis, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan

RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirowasa, Wako, Japan
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C3GC40789F
Received 26 Apr 2013, Accepted 13 Jun 2013
First published online 27 Jun 2013

Highly efficient catalytic hydrogenations are achieved by using amphiphilic polymer-stabilized Fe(0) nanoparticle (Fe NP) catalysts in ethanol or water in a flow reactor.
Alkenes, alkynes, aromatic imines and aldehydes were hydrogenated nearly quantitatively in most cases.
Aliphatic amines and aldehydes, ketone, ester, arene, nitro, and aryl halide functionalities are not affected, which provides an interesting chemoselectivity.
The Fe NPs used in this system are stabilized and protected by an amphiphilic polymer resin, providing a unique system that combines long-term stability and high activity. The NPs were characterized by TEM of microtomed resin, which established that iron remains in the zero-valent form despite exposure to water and oxygen.
The amphiphilic resin-supported Fe(0) nanoparticles in water and in flow provide a novel, robust, cheap and environmentally benign catalyst system for chemoselective hydrogenations.